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    种植技术

    杉木苗的栽培管理种植技术
    产品名称:
    杉木苗的栽培管理种植技术
    产品规格:
    产品功能:

    详细描述

    摘要贺州康乐农种植造林苗杉苗、湿地松、软枝油茶苗等数十亩,从种子采集、选地整地、播种育苗、幼苗管理、整地造林、抚育管理等方面介绍了杉木苗的栽培管理种植技术,以供参考。联系电话:15077440300

    杉木是我区特有的优良用材树种。分布广、生长快、产量高、材质好,用途多,是林农喜爱的造林树种。俗话说“秧好一半禾”,我们造林也要用优质壮苗来植树,因此培育优良优质壮苗要从下面几点技术来培育:
    选地
    杉木幼苗怕干旱,忌水湿,易发病,喜肥沃湿润的土壤,因此,选择苗圃地要注意:①要选择水源条件好、排灌方便的地方。②土壤以深厚肥沃含沙砾石少的黄壤土、砂质壤土为好,重粘土和积水地不能选作苗圃地。③老菜园地,育松,杉多年的苗圃地及种过易感病作物的地方不能作为育杉圃地。
    整地
    杉木育苗整地要做到“三犁三耙”并施足基肥,整地要求精耕细作,达到疏松、细碎、平整、无树根、无石块。整地必须在晴天或土壤较干情况下进行。
    土壤消毒
    预防病害可在苗床上均匀喷洒1%—2%的硫酸亚铁溶液,每亩300公斤—400公斤,或每亩用5公斤—10公斤硫酸亚铁粉末混合20倍细土,均匀撒于苗床再翻耕土壤中。
    起沟作床
    苗圃地整好以后,在播种前几天,当土壤不湿不干且天晴时作床。苗床以东西向为好,长度取决于地形。苗床宽1m—1.2m,高20cm—30cm。床边要稍倾斜拍紧,床面要土碎、平整并略加镇压,中间略高,做成龟背形。床与床之间走道留宽25cm—33cm,苗圃地四周和中间要开围沟和和腰沟,深40cm—50cm,但腰沟必须低于走道,围沟低于腰沟,以便于排水和灌溉。
    播种
    播种前要精选种子和消毒。种子消毒可用0.5%的高锰酸钾或1%漂白粉液浸30分钟,或用0.15%—0.3%的福尔马林液浸15分钟,倒去药液,封盖一小时后播种。播种季节以惊蛰到春分为宜。播种方法以撒播和条播,撒播即将杉木种子均匀地播在苗床上;条播即按18cm—25cm的距离开沟,沟深1cm,宽2 cm—3 cm左右,将沟用木板压实,把种子均匀撒在沟中。每亩播种子量5-6公斤左右。播种后再用细寸覆盖种子,厚度以不见种子为宜,覆土后再盖草或播种直接盖上干净的木屑2-4 cm厚度。
    管理
    播种后约一个月,种子先后发芽出土,盖草的就要揭去,揭草时间要在阴天或在傍晚。刚出土的幼苗要注意防治杉木立枯病。
    杉木立枯病防治,用1%—2%有硫酸亚铁溶液,每亩喷洒150斤,连续喷洒4次—7次,每隔7天一次。每次喷洒完后要立即用清水清洗幼苗,以防幼苗产生药害。也可用0.3%漂白粉、1%波尔多液或0.1%—0.5%敌克松喷洒苗木。
    杉苗全部出土后要及时除草松土,整个苗期要除草8次—10次,同时要适时追施速效性肥料,雨后及时清沟排渍,干旱季节及时浇水和抗旱保苗,并分次做好间苗工作,每平方米85-95株。
    杉苗达到二级苗以上壮苗的标准是:茎直而粗,顶芽饱满(菊花头),针叶紫红或灰绿,充分木质化,根系发达,侧须根较多无损伤。苗高大于20cm,根径大于0.4cm,根系长大于15cm,大于5cm的侧根数在10条以上。
    杉树种植栽培与育苗管理技术

    杉树种植喜空气湿度较高,怕夏季酷热或干旱,在降水量达1000mm左右处生长良好。喜生长于深厚肥沃的沙质壤土,若在西晒强烈的粘土地则生长极差。喜排水良好,在积水处,根易腐烂。枝条柔韧,能抗雪压及冰挂。杉树用途广,经济价值较高。但按常规的方法种植,一般需要20~30年才能成材砍伐。下面介绍一种速生10年早成材的栽培技巧:

    选地:应选择土层深厚疏松,肥沃湿润的山脚、谷地、阴坡种植,因为杉树是一种喜温喜湿,怕风怕旱的树种;种植在肥沃疏松的土壤里,杉树就能速生快长早成材。

    炼山开荒:在种杉前年的秋冬季节,要开好防火带,进行落青炼山;接着随地势开成倒倾斜的梯带,以提高水土保持;然后按1.5×1.5米的规格挖成深和宽各50×50厘米的大穴,让土壤充分晒白风化;待春来下雨后回泥种植。

    适时种植:春雨后,选取一年生的壮苗种植:杉树种植时间一般在2月份,当杉苗的芽苞呈大豆般大小,尚未开放前的雨天抢种;种时把苗木挖起,斩去不整齐的须根;然后用稀黄泥浆浆根,要栽正覆土轻提苗再压实;提苗以利于根系舒展,压实利于吸收水分易成活。

    除草施肥:杉苗成活后的当年夏季,要进行除草、松土、施肥1~2次;可用稀粪水淋施,每年春夏季各施肥一次;1~2年内应以施用农家肥为好,从第3年起,可根据树势和土壤肥瘦酌量用氮磷钾化肥配合施用;在每次施肥前要进行除草。

    杉树切忌修剪:因为杉树是节节高的直生乔木,它的枝条是自下而上交替新陈代谢自然脱落的;杉树若修剪则不易长大,且会因斩树枝而损伤木材,抑制生长。

    杉树播种后约一个月,种子先后发芽出土,就要分次揭去盖草,每一次揭去三分之一左右,隔3—5天再去揭去三分之一,3—5天后再揭去三分之一。揭苗后应采取遮荫措施,透光度保持30%—40%,立秋后应适时拆去遮荫棚。刚出土的幼苗要注意防治杉木猝倒病。

    杉树猝倒病防治,用1%—2%有硫酸亚铁溶液,每亩喷洒150斤,连续喷洒4次—7次,每隔7天一次。每次喷洒完后要立即用清水清洗幼苗,以防幼苗产生药害。也可用0.3%漂白粉、1%波尔多液或0.1%—0.5%敌克松喷洒苗木。
    杉树苗全部出土后要及时除草松土,整个苗期要除草8次—10次,同时要适时追施速效性肥料,雨后及时清沟排渍,干旱季节及时浇水和抗旱保苗,并分次做好间苗工作

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